What I do is store visitor information persistently in a database for a short timeframe. I store the IP address, hostname, session ID, web browser's user info string, and HTTP referrer, and then send the session ID to the client as a cookie. When a visitor returns I read their session ID fronm the cookie, restore their session if they've been there before, and compare hosts from the previous visit - if a host changes often for a given visitor it's likely to be a proxied host. I also compare their IP's actual host versus what they're reporting as their host, and if the two differ they're also likely to be behind a proxy.
This works well for the most part but isn't foolproof, as there's no solid and consistently workable means to detect a proxied visitor.
For privacy's sake the info I store is only used for demographics and referral purposes, and the database for it gets autoflushed periodically via cronned script file.
I'm not providing sample code because there are as many ways to do what I do as there are environments to do it in...
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